From Figure 5: Grossman 2007a, Elsevier Press, London - 3D paleo-envionmental reconstruction of original topography and landscape of 17th Century Manhattan.   Relative topography extruded from georeferenced historic maps.  Actual elevations extablished by infrastructure gound-truth and archaeological excavation records.  Historic ground and tree cover based on excavated plant remains and dated pollen cores. (See Grossman 2007a,)
GROSSMAN 2000 - 2002
GROSSMAN 2007
GROSSMAN 1995
Early 1995 3D terrain model of Lower Manhattan, looking west towards the plateau of City Hall Park modeled and computer-rendered by Joel W. Grossman, Ph.D. April 28, 1995)
3D terrain model of Lower Manhattan, without the New Jersey Palisades, looking north-west towards the plateau of City Hall Park  Computer rendering by Joel W. Grossman, Ph.D., Feduary, 2002 for publication of the 2000 Budapest paper on the ethnobotany of Dutch New York (2000 & 2002, See Grossman 2000ab, 2003).
[The 1590 Dutch Token] [3D Historic GIS of NYC] [3D Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction of NYC 1995 - 2007]
3D Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions of Prehistoric Manhattan 1995 - 2007
To the GIS of Lower Manhattan
[Raritan Landing -1979] [Broad St. - 1984] [Fort Edward - 1986] [Loiza - 1987]
[Superfund at West Point Foundry -1989-1995] [Early LIDAR in Albany-1999] [Meadowlands GIS Plan - 1992 - 2006]
[Mitigation Plan - Furnace Falls 2002 ] [Furnace Dalls - Color LIDAR -2004]
3D geospatial correlation of 17th Franquelin map of Manhattan to the topography of Lower Manhattan looking north-west towards the plateau of City Hall Park.  Computer rendering by Joel W. Grossman, Ph.D., Feduary 14, 2002 for publication of 2000 Budapest paper on the ethnobotany of Dutch New York (2000 & 2002, See Grossman 2000ab, 2003, 2007a).

2000a. “Applied Technology in the Discovery and Reanalysis of Colonial Dutch West India Company Remains in Lower Manhattan, New York.” Invited Paper for the 1st Annual Regia Civitas Conference “Medieval Towns and It's Citizens” of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary June 1-4, 2000.  

2000b “Mrs. Kierstede's Rear Yard: The Archaeological Discovery and Ethno-botanical, Cartographic and Archival Reanalysis of the 17 Century Dutch West India Company Remains in Lower Manhattan, New York”. Invited paper for the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Quebec, Canada, January 6, 2000.
GROSSMAN 2003
GROSSMAN 1995
GROSSMAN 2000 - 2002
The 3D reconstruction of the now innundated Hackensack drainage integrated historic Civil War military bathymetry, dated pollen cores and sea level (marine transgression) curves target areas of potential cultural sensitivity, and to provide a 3D geospatial reconstruction and animated “fly-by” of the Meadowlands 1000 -2000 years before the present Detail environmental reconstruction rendered by Joel W. Grossman for his invited 2003 paper before the New Jersey Meadowlands (Grossman 2003). Original 3D georeferencing of Bien's Civil War bathemetry was done in 1994 as part of the US EPA funded multi-agency SAMP sensativity study of the Meadowlands.
Early computer screen shot of 1995 3D terrain model of Lower Manhattan, looking south-west across Collect Pond and the plateau of City Hall Park - modeled and computer-rendered by Joel W. Grossman, Ph.D. April 28, 1995)